Natural Business Values

Natural business values arise out of the normal operations of business firms. These values guide the firm’s actions, decisions, policies, and strategies. The five principal business values are economizing values (promoting economically productive activities), power-aggrandizing values (preserving the authority of business managers), ecologizing values (recognizing the firm’s impacts on the natural environment), technologizing values (encouraging the creatively productive power of technology), and individual personal values (the personal attitudes and beliefs of the firm’s managers and employees). These values interact with each other, sometimes cooperatively and positively and at other times competitively and negatively, thereby affecting all phases of the firm’s business activities.


Theoretical Analysis by William C. Frederick
Business Values and Natural Corporate Management

Values, Nature and Culture in the American Corporation (above)
William C. Frederick (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995)

"Anchoring Values in Nature: Toward a Theory of Business Values."
1992. Business Ethics Quarterly, 2, 3: 283-303

"Nature's Laws, Nature's Values:  Five Questions, Four Answers."
(1998.  Ethics Section, Academy for the Legal Study of Business. San Diego, California.)


The Business Firm and Natural Corporate Management

"The Corporation: Nature’s Black Box."
(In Corporation, Be Good! The Story of Corporate Social Responsibility, 2006)

"Creatures, Corporations, Communities, Chaos, Complexity:
A Naturological View of the Corporate Social Role."
(Business & Society, 37 (4) December 1998)

"Emergent Management Morality: Explaining Corporate Corruption."
(Emergence 5 (1) 2003: 5-35, Available on-line only.)

"The Evolutionary Firm and Its Moral (Dis)Contents."
(Business, Science, and Ethics, The Ruffin Series No. 4, 2004)

"Hard-wired Management Morality: Coalitional Crime at Enron, WorldCom, Tyco, and HealthSouth."
(In Corporation, Be Good! The Story of Corporate Social Responsibility, 2006)

"Invitation to Eden: The Natural Potentials and Cultural Limitations of Corporate Strategy."
(2009. An original paper available on this website.)

"Planetary Economic Processes: The Missing Component of Socio-Economic Theory."
July 12, 1996.  8th International Conference, The Society for Advancement of Socio-Economics.  Universite de Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

"Explaining Management Morality: Complexity Theory's Unfinished Agenda."
December 2002. Managing the Complex IV Conference, Institute for the Study of Coherence and Emergence, Fort Myers, Florida.


Social Contracts, Business Ethics, and Natural Corporate Management

"Evolutionary Social Contracts."
2002. Business and Society Review,  107, 3: 283-308.  (Coauthor:  David M. Wasieleski)

"Pragmatism, Nature, and Norms."
2000. Business and Society Review, 105, 4: 467-479

"Dunfee Re: Frederick: Nature and Norms."
2000. Business and Society Review, 105, 4: 493-501

"Seeking Common Ground: A Response to Dunfee."
2000. Business and Society Review, 105, 4: 502-504

"T2 + D2 + E3 = ISCT-II A Biocultural Guide to Social Contract."
(Wharton Conference, 2004)

“Nature and Business Ethics.”
1999. In Robert E. Frederick & Edward Petry (eds.).  A Companion to Business Ethics.
Blackwell, 100-111Natural Business Ethics

“Natural Business Ethics” 
2008.  In Robert W. Kolb (ed.), Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society, Vol. 3, Sage Publications, 1479-80.