Business and Society
A business firm is unavoidably influenced by its host community’s social institutions, social values, and cultural traditions. At the same time the firm exerts reciprocal influence on the society’s values and traditions.  At the intersections where these two  forces—Business and Society—meet, one discovers the major moral and ethical issues associated with business practice.                          

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) means that business has social and ethical, as well as economic, responsibilities to the people, communities, and environments affected by its operations.                    

Business Ethics (BE) refers to the ethical rules, principles, and moral logic applied to business operations, policies, and decisions.        

For my books and articles on Business and Society,
go to

Culture, Nature, Cosmos
Three primary forces – CULTURE, NATURE, COSMOS – influence the modern business corporation’s actions, decisions, goals, and strategies. CULTURE includes the diverse beliefs, values, behaviors, institutions, and traditions of human groups living on planet Earth. NATURE includes all forms of organic life – plants, animals, humans, bacteria, etc. – and the biological and physical environments in which they live. COSMOS refers to the Universe as a whole, including elementary particles and atoms, stars, planets, galaxies, and the underlying energy forces that have been evolving for over 14 billion years.

For a description and analysis of how these three forces – CULTURE, NATURE, COSMOS – have influenced and shaped Corporate Social Responsibility, go to Judging the Business Corporation: Cultural, Natural, and Cosmic Foundations.

Business and Nature
Natural Corporate Management (NCM) is a management approach based on knowing how natural forces affect business and
how business decisions can achieve long-term sustainability for business, society, and the Earth’s ecosystems. Business success depends on the ability to understand and manage these natural forces. For information about my book, "Natural Corporate Management", click on

Natural Business Values are formed when business firms interact with natural forces and with socio-cultural traditions and beliefs. These business values then guide the decisions, policies, and strategies of corporate managers. Natural Business Values are explained in my book, "Values, Nature, and Culture in the American Corporation". For a description of this book and other articles on Natural Business Values, go to NATURAL BUSINESS VALUES.